Coaches Corner

 FRONTENAC COUNTY MINOR SOFTBALL ASSOCIATION (FCMSA)

RULES & REGULATIONS for U7, U9 & U11

*Note – Please see the ICSA Rules and Regulations for U13 levels and above.

  1. GENERAL

1.1. Unless otherwise stated in the FCMSA Constitution, Bylaws or Rules of play, Games for all divisions will be governed by the current “Official Guide and Rule Book” of the Canadian Amateur Softball Association (Softball Canada), PWSA and OASA.

  1. UMPIRES AND SOFTBALLS

2.1. Provision of umpires is the responsibility of the home team.  It is required that all umpires be carded, or in the process of being carded, for the current year. 

2.1.1. U7 & U9 levels do not require umpires, but a meeting at the plate is mandatory for coaches to discuss rules before the game begins.

2.1.2. U11 level may use Junior Umpires and only require one per game during the regular season. A meeting at the plate is mandatory for coaches to discuss rules before the game begins.

2.2 Provision of balls is the responsibility of the home team.  

2.2.1. U7 & U9 levels use 11” indoor balls.

2.2.2. U11 level uses 11” Red Dot softballs.

  1. FIELD LINING & BASES

3.1. Field Lining

3.1.1. It is the home team’s responsibility to ensure bases are properly placed and fields are lined prior to game time.  

3.1.2. Lining will include the foul line, the batter’s box and the pitching circle.

3.2. A safety base must be used at first base and defensive players are to play the white bag only.

  1. SAFETY EQUIPMENT

4.1. Batting Helmets 

4.1.1. U7, U9 and U11 batting helmets must have a chin straps and face cage. Chin straps must be fastened and worn by all batters, batters on deck, base runners and by any base coach under 17 years of age. 

4.2. Catchers’ Equipment

4.2.1. Catchers must wear a helmet (without strap), face mask, chest protector, safety cup, shin pads with kneecap protector, and throat guard at all times while catching for a pitcher (throat guards are not required if face mask has throat extension). 

4.2.2. U11 – Anyone warming up a pitcher must wear a face mask.

4.3. First Aid

4.3.1. First aid kits are required for all teams.

  1. BATTING

5.1. All teams will bat in a continuous order for the whole lineup, unless the player has been benched due to derogatory behavior, illness or injury. 

5.2. U7

5.2.1. It is recommended that the batting order should change each game so a different player leads off each game.

5.2.2. Players have the choice to be pitched to first. If after 3 pitches they haven’t hit the ball the Tee will be used. They have unlimited attempts to hit off the Tee. There is no infield fly rule.

5.2.3. All players have a turn at bat each inning. The offensive team is required to notify the defensive team once the last batter is at bat.

5.3. U9

5.3.1. A different player should lead the batting order each game.

5.3.2. Only one batter is allowed in the on deck circle. All other players must remain in the dugout.

5.3.3. Each batter gets 5 pitches. If the last pitch/swing is fouled, additional pitches will be granted. There is no limit on fouled balls. (Teach your batters to always swing at the last pitch!)

5.3.4. The coach-pitcher will advise the batter of the last pitch. No balls or strikes will be called. There are no walks or free bases, even if the batter is hit by a pitch from a coach-pitcher.

5.3.5. The batter will be called out if there is no contact with the ball on the 5th or last pitch.

5.3.6. Bunting is not permitted. There is no infield fly rule.

5.4. U11

5.4.1. Players arriving late can be added to bottom of the line-up anytime, with notification to the other team.

5.4.2. Only one batter is allowed in the on deck circle. All other players must remain in the dugout.

5.4.3. Batters are out after three strikes have crossed the plate without a hit. No runners may advance to first base on a dropped third strike.

5.4.4. Batters may take a base after four balls have been called. Batters may also take a base if they are hit by a pitch.

5.4.5. Bunting is not permitted. There is no infield fly rule.

  1. BASE RUNNING

6.1. Runners at all levels (U7, U9 and U11) must stay in contact with the base until the ball is hit. There is no lead off or stealing of bases. Sliding is allowed at all levels.

6.1.1. Clarification on base running for U9 & U11 – Players may take the bases they would get on a clean play. This does not include situations where a defensive player makes an error. Here are a few examples:

Example 1 – The catcher misses the pitch and is looking for it behind the plate. All runners should stay on their bases.

Example 2 – The ball is hit past the infield into the outfield and would be added to the scorebook as a double (if we were keeping score). All runners may advance a base or two as long as the ball is being played cleanly without errors. 

Example 3 – The ball is hit to the shortstop and they bobble it (an error), then the runners should stop advancing. This would be added to the scorebook as a single if played cleanly (and if we were keeping score), but because it was bobbled it would be entered as an error and is considered stealing if the runner takes advantage and advances to second base. In U9 & U11 we do not allow our runners to take advantage of errors to move through the bases.

At the U9 level it may be easier to take one bag per play as it is rare for a batter to hit a ball into the outfield cleanly at this stage. Kids at these levels are learning a lot and many are playing softball for the first time. There is A LOT to learn. Emphasis should be on having fun while learning the basics of the game.

6.2. Players are not called out for lead off. Coaches should send the runner back to the base with an explanation.

6.3. Players may not advance to the next base on an overthrow.

6.4. All base runners must stop when the ball is under control in the infield.

6.5. Base runners who have been called out may not continue to run the bases.

6.6. In U7 the last batter continues to run all the bases to try and get to home plate. Defensive players are encouraged to return the ball to the catcher or other defensive player touching home plate. 

6.7. In U9 the last batter will continue to run the bases until they touch home or get out.

  1. INNINGS & GAME TIME

7.1. U7

7.1.1. There will be two innings played per game. Both teams will bat through the entire batting order of the largest team (e.g. Team #1 has 11 players, Team #2 has 8 players, Team #2 would bat through their 8 players and an additional 3 to make 11).

7.2. U9

7.2.1. All players bat once an inning. A ½ inning will be considered complete when all batters in the lineup have batted and all runners have touched all the bases. Length of games are 5 innings maximum. No new innings should begin after one hour.

7.3. U11

7.3.1. Length of games are 5 innings maximum. No new innings should begin after one hour and twenty minutes.

7.3.2. One hour of playing time constitutes a game and the score reverts to the last completed inning. The bottom half of the last inning will be played regardless of the score unless the Home team does not wish to continue or the umpire feels there are extenuating circumstances that could be detrimental to the teams.

  1. MERCY RULE – A maximum of six (6) runs may be earned in any one inning.  All innings are six (6) run mercy and ALL innings are CLOSED for U11 and up.

8.1. U7 & U9 – no mercy rules is applied since they do not keep score.

8.2. U11 – If any team is ahead by 15 runs or more after three innings, or any inning thereafter, a meeting at the plate will occur to decide if they stay and play for practice or end the game. If any team is ahead by 10 runs or more after five innings (4 ½ if Home Team), or any inning thereafter, a meeting at the plate will occur to decide if they stay and play for practice or end the game. A maximum of 6 runs per half inning.

  1. SUBSTITUTIONS & DEFENSIVE PLAY

9.1. Players may be inserted into the field at will.  Players are “out” as usual. Runners may be substituted by the last out of the inning for injured players only, whose injury prevents them from running.  In all divisions the catcher runner may be replaced with the last person out, to allow the catcher to suit up to prevent game delays. 

9.2. U7

9.2.1. All players can be out on the field and should rotate positions on the field.

9.2.2. During regular league play and playoffs, any registered player shall not sit out two consecutive innings on defense.

9.3. U9

9.3.1. Six infielders (including a catcher) and all remaining players are outfielders. The catcher must be properly equipped. Outfielders must start the play at least ten feet behind the base path. Although this should rarely occur, outfielders are allowed to make a play on the base.

9.3.2. During regular league play and playoffs, any registered player shall not sit out two consecutive innings on defense. Coaches must document the defensive positions of all players during the game. No player shall sit a second inning before every player has sat one inning. The following exceptions will apply: a) Should a player arrive late for a game, b) Should a player act in a derogatory manner towards coaches, or other players, c) Should a player become sick or injured during a game.

9.4. U11

9.4.1. Six infielders (including a catcher) and three outfielders as in regular softball. The catcher must be properly equipped. Outfielders must start the play at least ten feet behind the base path. Outfielders are allowed to make a play on the base.

9.4.2. During regular league play and playoffs, any registered player shall not sit out two consecutive innings on defense.  Doing so may result in forfeiture of the game.  Coaches must document the defensive positions of all players during the game.  If a game is protested, the defensive documents must be submitted to the Plate Umpire, normal protest procedure to apply. The following exceptions will apply: a) Should a player arrive late for a game, b) Should a player act in a derogatory manner towards coaches, players or umpires, c) Should a player become sick or injured during a game.  Note:  No player shall sit a second inning before every player has sat one inning.  No player shall sit a third inning before every player has sat 2 innings.  

  1. PITCHING

10.1. U9

10.1.1. The coach-pitcher should stand an appropriate distance from home plate. The fielding team’s pitcher may play in the field beside the batting team’s coach-pitcher but may not be closer than 2 feet behind them.

10.2. U11

10.2.1. If a pitcher hits 3 batters in the same inning, that pitcher is retired from pitching for the remainder of the game. A U11 pitcher may pitch a maximum of three (3) innings per game. This rule must be used with Rule #9.4.2…Everyone must sit once before any player sits twice in a game.

10.2.2. Refer to Softball Canada new pitching rules. 

  1. a) Pitchers must start with one foot on the rubber
  2. b) Pitchers may hop, but must stay in the shoot
  3. c) Pitchers must come to a full stop before the next pitch

10.2.3. A team is permitted two defensive conferences per inning. With the third conference, the pitcher must be removed from the pitcher position for the balance of the inning.

10.2.4. Pitchers struggling to put the ball in the strike zone using full windmill will be encouraged to pitch underhand.

  1. COACHING POSITIONS

11.1. U7

11.1.1. Offensively, only base coaches and the coach-pitcher will take positions on the playing field during a game.

11.1.2. Defensively, parents and coaches are encouraged to join their kids on the field to help them learn the game. This is up to the discretion of the coach.

11.2. U9

11.2.1. Offensively, only base coaches and the coach-pitcher will take positions on the playing field during a game. 

11.2.2. Defensively, two coaches may be in the outfield to help instruct their team. They must stay 10 feet behind the base line during play. One additional defensive coach should be with the catcher to keep them safe and help get the catcher into position once the ball is in play.

11.3. U11

11.3.1. Offensively, only base coaches will take positions on the playing field during a game. 

11.2.2. Defensively, no coaches are permitted on the field.

  1. SCOREKEEPING

12.1. U7 & U9 do not keep score.

12.2. U11

12.2.1. First names, last names and numbers must be provided on the score sheet.

12.2.2. Tied games are acceptable in league play.

12.2.3. In case of ejection, the coach shall have the person’s name, time, and date of ejection put in scorebook and signed by plate umpire and/or coaches.

12.2.4. Numbered shirts are required for U11 division and above.

12.2.5. In case of weather or cancellation of a game by an official and when two innings have been completed, the score of the game will revert to the last fully completed inning. Games under 2 innings can be rescheduled or cancelled.

  1. TOURNAMENTS

13.1. U7 & U9 play two (2) games per team. All players receive a participation medal. 

13.2. U11 

13.2.1. Standings will be determined prior to the tournament by using the standings at the end of the regular season.  

13.2.2. The U11 tournament will be an A and B division. No team will play more than three (3) games in one day.

13.2.3. Regular rules of play time limits will apply in tournament games, with the exception that championship games have no time limit. 

13.2.4. If a tournament game is tied after time is up or after all innings have been completed, whichever rule is applicable, the game continues for the next two (2) innings. If still tied, international rules will apply (i.e. inning is started with the last out of the previous inning on second base). 

13.2.5. Players must play a minimum of four (4) regular games to be eligible for tournament games.        

  1. ZERO TOLERANCE POLICY     

14.1. Effective August 2022, we have a Zero Tolerance Policy for drinking/drugs during the game. This is not limited to just players but also spectators and includes before, during and after the game on ball grounds. Spectators who are found drinking or doing drugs on the ball grounds will be asked to leave. Player(s) caught drinking or doing drugs will be asked to leave and will not be allowed to play for the remainder of the season. If anyone who is asked to leave refuses to comply, the police will be called and the player(s) will not be allowed to play the following season either. 

14.2. Smoking and/or vaping is not permitted on the fields or benches. If you need to light up, please be respectful and step away. 

14.3. Aggressive behaviour (yelling, swearing or threats of any kind, etc.) will not be tolerated and will result in eviction from the ball grounds. If anyone who is asked to leave refuses to comply, the police will be called.

14.4. Bat and helmet throwing is considered a serious offence and will not be tolerated.  Players and/or coaches will be ejected from the game and suspended from the next two (2) regular games. Coaches may bring any issues they are experiencing to their convenors for help.

If you have any questions or concerns about any of the above rules or regulations, please contact your convenor or email us at [email protected] 






 FRONTENAC COUNTY MINOR SOFTBALL ASSOCIATION (FCMSA)

RULES & REGULATIONS for U7, U9 & U11

*Note – Please see the ICSA Rules and Regulations for U13 levels and above.

  1. GENERAL

1.1. Unless otherwise stated in the FCMSA Constitution, Bylaws or Rules of play, Games for all divisions will be governed by the current “Official Guide and Rule Book” of the Canadian Amateur Softball Association (Softball Canada), PWSA and OASA.

  1. UMPIRES AND SOFTBALLS

2.1. Provision of umpires is the responsibility of the home team.  It is required that all umpires be carded, or in the process of being carded, for the current year. 

2.1.1. U7 & U9 levels do not require umpires, but a meeting at the plate is mandatory for coaches to discuss rules before the game begins.

2.1.2. U11 level may use Junior Umpires and only require one per game during the regular season. A meeting at the plate is mandatory for coaches to discuss rules before the game begins.

2.2 Provision of balls is the responsibility of the home team.  

2.2.1. U7 & U9 levels use 11” indoor balls.

2.2.2. U11 level uses 11” Red Dot softballs.

  1. FIELD LINING & BASES

3.1. Field Lining

3.1.1. It is the home team’s responsibility to ensure bases are properly placed and fields are lined prior to game time.  

3.1.2. Lining will include the foul line, the batter’s box and the pitching circle.

3.2. A safety base must be used at first base and defensive players are to play the white bag only.

  1. SAFETY EQUIPMENT

4.1. Batting Helmets 

4.1.1. U7, U9 and U11 batting helmets must have a chin straps and face cage. Chin straps must be fastened and worn by all batters, batters on deck, base runners and by any base coach under 17 years of age. 

4.2. Catchers’ Equipment

4.2.1. Catchers must wear a helmet (without strap), face mask, chest protector, safety cup, shin pads with kneecap protector, and throat guard at all times while catching for a pitcher (throat guards are not required if face mask has throat extension). 

4.2.2. U11 – Anyone warming up a pitcher must wear a face mask.

4.3. First Aid

4.3.1. First aid kits are required for all teams.

  1. BATTING

5.1. All teams will bat in a continuous order for the whole lineup, unless the player has been benched due to derogatory behavior, illness or injury. 

5.2. U7

5.2.1. It is recommended that the batting order should change each game so a different player leads off each game.

5.2.2. Players have the choice to be pitched to first. If after 3 pitches they haven’t hit the ball the Tee will be used. They have unlimited attempts to hit off the Tee. There is no infield fly rule.

5.2.3. All players have a turn at bat each inning. The offensive team is required to notify the defensive team once the last batter is at bat.

5.3. U9

5.3.1. A different player should lead the batting order each game.

5.3.2. Only one batter is allowed in the on deck circle. All other players must remain in the dugout.

5.3.3. Each batter gets 5 pitches. If the last pitch/swing is fouled, additional pitches will be granted. There is no limit on fouled balls. (Teach your batters to always swing at the last pitch!)

5.3.4. The coach-pitcher will advise the batter of the last pitch. No balls or strikes will be called. There are no walks or free bases, even if the batter is hit by a pitch from a coach-pitcher.

5.3.5. The batter will be called out if there is no contact with the ball on the 5th or last pitch.

5.3.6. Bunting is not permitted. There is no infield fly rule.

5.4. U11

5.4.1. Players arriving late can be added to bottom of the line-up anytime, with notification to the other team.

5.4.2. Only one batter is allowed in the on deck circle. All other players must remain in the dugout.

5.4.3. Batters are out after three strikes have crossed the plate without a hit. No runners may advance to first base on a dropped third strike.

5.4.4. Batters may take a base after four balls have been called. Batters may also take a base if they are hit by a pitch.

5.4.5. Bunting is not permitted. There is no infield fly rule.

  1. BASE RUNNING

6.1. Runners at all levels (U7, U9 and U11) must stay in contact with the base until the ball is hit. There is no lead off or stealing of bases. Sliding is allowed at all levels.

6.1.1. Clarification on base running for U9 & U11 – Players may take the bases they would get on a clean play. This does not include situations where a defensive player makes an error. Here are a few examples:

Example 1 – The catcher misses the pitch and is looking for it behind the plate. All runners should stay on their bases.

Example 2 – The ball is hit past the infield into the outfield and would be added to the scorebook as a double (if we were keeping score). All runners may advance a base or two as long as the ball is being played cleanly without errors. 

Example 3 – The ball is hit to the shortstop and they bobble it (an error), then the runners should stop advancing. This would be added to the scorebook as a single if played cleanly (and if we were keeping score), but because it was bobbled it would be entered as an error and is considered stealing if the runner takes advantage and advances to second base. In U9 & U11 we do not allow our runners to take advantage of errors to move through the bases.

At the U9 level it may be easier to take one bag per play as it is rare for a batter to hit a ball into the outfield cleanly at this stage. Kids at these levels are learning a lot and many are playing softball for the first time. There is A LOT to learn. Emphasis should be on having fun while learning the basics of the game.

6.2. Players are not called out for lead off. Coaches should send the runner back to the base with an explanation.

6.3. Players may not advance to the next base on an overthrow.

6.4. All base runners must stop when the ball is under control in the infield.

6.5. Base runners who have been called out may not continue to run the bases.

6.6. In U7 the last batter continues to run all the bases to try and get to home plate. Defensive players are encouraged to return the ball to the catcher or other defensive player touching home plate. 

6.7. In U9 the last batter will continue to run the bases until they touch home or get out.

  1. INNINGS & GAME TIME

7.1. U7

7.1.1. There will be two innings played per game. Both teams will bat through the entire batting order of the largest team (e.g. Team #1 has 11 players, Team #2 has 8 players, Team #2 would bat through their 8 players and an additional 3 to make 11).

7.2. U9

7.2.1. All players bat once an inning. A ½ inning will be considered complete when all batters in the lineup have batted and all runners have touched all the bases. Length of games are 5 innings maximum. No new innings should begin after one hour.

7.3. U11

7.3.1. Length of games are 5 innings maximum. No new innings should begin after one hour and twenty minutes.

7.3.2. One hour of playing time constitutes a game and the score reverts to the last completed inning. The bottom half of the last inning will be played regardless of the score unless the Home team does not wish to continue or the umpire feels there are extenuating circumstances that could be detrimental to the teams.

  1. MERCY RULE – A maximum of six (6) runs may be earned in any one inning.  All innings are six (6) run mercy and ALL innings are CLOSED for U11 and up.

8.1. U7 & U9 – no mercy rules is applied since they do not keep score.

8.2. U11 – If any team is ahead by 15 runs or more after three innings, or any inning thereafter, a meeting at the plate will occur to decide if they stay and play for practice or end the game. If any team is ahead by 10 runs or more after five innings (4 ½ if Home Team), or any inning thereafter, a meeting at the plate will occur to decide if they stay and play for practice or end the game. A maximum of 6 runs per half inning.

  1. SUBSTITUTIONS & DEFENSIVE PLAY

9.1. Players may be inserted into the field at will.  Players are “out” as usual. Runners may be substituted by the last out of the inning for injured players only, whose injury prevents them from running.  In all divisions the catcher runner may be replaced with the last person out, to allow the catcher to suit up to prevent game delays. 

9.2. U7

9.2.1. All players can be out on the field and should rotate positions on the field.

9.2.2. During regular league play and playoffs, any registered player shall not sit out two consecutive innings on defense.

9.3. U9

9.3.1. Six infielders (including a catcher) and all remaining players are outfielders. The catcher must be properly equipped. Outfielders must start the play at least ten feet behind the base path. Although this should rarely occur, outfielders are allowed to make a play on the base.

9.3.2. During regular league play and playoffs, any registered player shall not sit out two consecutive innings on defense. Coaches must document the defensive positions of all players during the game. No player shall sit a second inning before every player has sat one inning. The following exceptions will apply: a) Should a player arrive late for a game, b) Should a player act in a derogatory manner towards coaches, or other players, c) Should a player become sick or injured during a game.

9.4. U11

9.4.1. Six infielders (including a catcher) and three outfielders as in regular softball. The catcher must be properly equipped. Outfielders must start the play at least ten feet behind the base path. Outfielders are allowed to make a play on the base.

9.4.2. During regular league play and playoffs, any registered player shall not sit out two consecutive innings on defense.  Doing so may result in forfeiture of the game.  Coaches must document the defensive positions of all players during the game.  If a game is protested, the defensive documents must be submitted to the Plate Umpire, normal protest procedure to apply. The following exceptions will apply: a) Should a player arrive late for a game, b) Should a player act in a derogatory manner towards coaches, players or umpires, c) Should a player become sick or injured during a game.  Note:  No player shall sit a second inning before every player has sat one inning.  No player shall sit a third inning before every player has sat 2 innings.  

  1. PITCHING

10.1. U9

10.1.1. The coach-pitcher should stand an appropriate distance from home plate. The fielding team’s pitcher may play in the field beside the batting team’s coach-pitcher but may not be closer than 2 feet behind them.

10.2. U11

10.2.1. If a pitcher hits 3 batters in the same inning, that pitcher is retired from pitching for the remainder of the game. A U11 pitcher may pitch a maximum of three (3) innings per game. This rule must be used with Rule #9.4.2…Everyone must sit once before any player sits twice in a game.

10.2.2. Refer to Softball Canada new pitching rules. 

  1. a) Pitchers must start with one foot on the rubber
  2. b) Pitchers may hop, but must stay in the shoot
  3. c) Pitchers must come to a full stop before the next pitch

10.2.3. A team is permitted two defensive conferences per inning. With the third conference, the pitcher must be removed from the pitcher position for the balance of the inning.

10.2.4. Pitchers struggling to put the ball in the strike zone using full windmill will be encouraged to pitch underhand.

  1. COACHING POSITIONS

11.1. U7

11.1.1. Offensively, only base coaches and the coach-pitcher will take positions on the playing field during a game.

11.1.2. Defensively, parents and coaches are encouraged to join their kids on the field to help them learn the game. This is up to the discretion of the coach.

11.2. U9

11.2.1. Offensively, only base coaches and the coach-pitcher will take positions on the playing field during a game. 

11.2.2. Defensively, two coaches may be in the outfield to help instruct their team. They must stay 10 feet behind the base line during play. One additional defensive coach should be with the catcher to keep them safe and help get the catcher into position once the ball is in play.

11.3. U11

11.3.1. Offensively, only base coaches will take positions on the playing field during a game. 

11.2.2. Defensively, no coaches are permitted on the field.

  1. SCOREKEEPING

12.1. U7 & U9 do not keep score.

12.2. U11

12.2.1. First names, last names and numbers must be provided on the score sheet.

12.2.2. Tied games are acceptable in league play.

12.2.3. In case of ejection, the coach shall have the person’s name, time, and date of ejection put in scorebook and signed by plate umpire and/or coaches.

12.2.4. Numbered shirts are required for U11 division and above.

12.2.5. In case of weather or cancellation of a game by an official and when two innings have been completed, the score of the game will revert to the last fully completed inning. Games under 2 innings can be rescheduled or cancelled.

  1. TOURNAMENTS

13.1. U7 & U9 play two (2) games per team. All players receive a participation medal. 

13.2. U11 

13.2.1. Standings will be determined prior to the tournament by using the standings at the end of the regular season.  

13.2.2. The U11 tournament will be an A and B division. No team will play more than three (3) games in one day.

13.2.3. Regular rules of play time limits will apply in tournament games, with the exception that championship games have no time limit. 

13.2.4. If a tournament game is tied after time is up or after all innings have been completed, whichever rule is applicable, the game continues for the next two (2) innings. If still tied, international rules will apply (i.e. inning is started with the last out of the previous inning on second base). 

13.2.5. Players must play a minimum of four (4) regular games to be eligible for tournament games.        

  1. ZERO TOLERANCE POLICY     

14.1. Effective August 2022, we have a Zero Tolerance Policy for drinking/drugs during the game. This is not limited to just players but also spectators and includes before, during and after the game on ball grounds. Spectators who are found drinking or doing drugs on the ball grounds will be asked to leave. Player(s) caught drinking or doing drugs will be asked to leave and will not be allowed to play for the remainder of the season. If anyone who is asked to leave refuses to comply, the police will be called and the player(s) will not be allowed to play the following season either. 

14.2. Smoking and/or vaping is not permitted on the fields or benches. If you need to light up, please be respectful and step away. 

14.3. Aggressive behaviour (yelling, swearing or threats of any kind, etc.) will not be tolerated and will result in eviction from the ball grounds. If anyone who is asked to leave refuses to comply, the police will be called.

14.4. Bat and helmet throwing is considered a serious offence and will not be tolerated.  Players and/or coaches will be ejected from the game and suspended from the next two (2) regular games. Coaches may bring any issues they are experiencing to their convenors for help.

If you have any questions or concerns about any of the above rules or regulations, please contact your convenor or email us at [email protected] 






Inter-Community Softball Association (ICSA) House League Rules

(Revised April 2023)

 

  1. General

Unless otherwise stated in the current ICSA House League Rules, games for all divisions will be governed by the “Official Guide and Rule Book” of the Canadian Amateur Softball Association.  (Softball Canada), PWSA and OASA.

 

  • Area Responsibilities
  1. Provide field times for teams to play regularly scheduled games.
  2. Provide liability insurance for each team involved in league play.
  3. Schedule and pay registered umpires for all scheduled home games and hosted tournaments.
    1. U15 and under may use Junior Umpires. 
    2. U19 and Junior will use Senior Umpires when available.  
    3. When possible, one umpire must be at least two age groups older, and one umpire, one age group older, than the team playing. Senior Umpire should be at home plate.
  4. Shall have an area representative to represent their area and its concerns regarding softball, and to be liaison between their area coaches and players and the ICSA Executive.
  5. Shall assist as required with game scheduling, tournaments, returning trophies etc.
  6. Shall abide by and support the ICSA Rules. 
  7. Shall ensure that their area’s coaches and umpires receive copies of the current ICSA rules before the first game. Any amendments made during the current year shall be forwarded and returned within 2 weeks.
  8. Shall provide the players’ lists for all teams from their area who are playing in the ICSA.  Such lists shall be received by the convenor of their division, as well as the other areas in their division by June 15. The ICSA Executive must approve any player registrations after this date.

 

  1. Registration Policy/Player Eligibility
  1. Player registration forms must include name, date of birth and proof provided, parents’/guardian’s name, address, telephone number and signature. If registration occurred online, selecting “agree” to the online waiver will be considered a signature.
  2. Only special need cases will be accepted as a reason to play down one or more age levels.  Such special needs must be addressed through the ICSA.
  3. Players registering after player lists have been submitted to the ICSA Convenor will have to receive approval by the ICSA executive.
  4. Submitted Team Players must play a minimum of 4 regular games to be eligible for end of year tournament games.
  5. Rep teams will be allowed to play in the ICSA house league, but they must play a division higher (i.e. A U15 rep team is required to play in the U17/19 house league division). Rep teams are not permitted to play in the end of year tournament, unless all coaches in the division are in agreement to allow them.
  6. Rep players will be allowed to play in the ICSA house league, but they must play a division higher (i.e. A U15 rep player is required to play in the U17/19 house league division). In some cases, rep players may be allowed to play in their own division, but this will be reviewed on a case by case basis by the ICSA.
  7. Rep players should be put on a wait list until all ICSA house league teams are formed. It is the responsibility of the coach by June 30th, to recognize and acknowledge by written declaration that they have a rep player on their team.  Failure to do so will result in Rule #24 e) being enforced.
  8. Select players are chosen from different teams in the ICSA to play in occasional tournaments and are not affected by the rule for rep players. All select players and teams may be reviewed by the ICSA executive.
  9. Select teams cannot play in the same house league division. They must play up in the next division.
  10. For insurance reasons, pregnant females are not eligible to play in the ICSA.
  11. ICSA Registered Players may play in another fastball league, however, the ICSA team will be first     priority and it will be at the coach’s discretion whether a player remains on the team if they are not following this.  NOTE:  ICSA Insurance does not cover play in another league. 
  12. There is no maximum age for Jr. Ladies & Jr. Men teams, as of 2018. 

 

  1. Balls

Effective 2014, the yellow ball will be the official ICSA Ball exclusively. Provision of CASA approved softballs (one new and one used ball per game) are the responsibility of the home team.  (PWSA yellow ball may be used, however, both balls used must be of the same color.)

 

  1. Safety Equipment
  1. All batters must wear helmets.  U17 and below must wear helmets with a cage and straps fastened. This rule includes batters on deck, base runners, and any coach under 17 years of age.
  2. Catchers must wear a helmet (without strap), a facemask, chest protector, safety cup, shin pads with kneecap protector, throat guard at all times while catching for a pitcher.  (Throat guards are not required if facemask already has a throat extension). Anyone warming up a pitcher must wear a face mask.
  3. Double bags must be used at first base. Defensive players are to play the white bag only.
  4. First Aid kits are required for all teams.
  5. All U15 pitchers and below must wear a defensive face mask when pitching ** U19 and older recommended but not mandatory.

 

  1. Casts, Jewelry

All types of wristwatches, bracelets, rings, earrings, and neck chains may not be worn during the game.  Ear studs may be taped.  (Exception: Medic Alert). Failure to remove such items after being requested to do so by the umpires will result in the player being removed from the game and being ruled ineligible for play.

 

  1. Clothing/Footwear
  1. Numbered shirts (for U13 and up), long pants, socks and proper athletic shoes are required.  (Exception: Rep teams would be allowed to wear shorts as a team). Female Teams are allowed to wear shorts if that is their team uniform
  2. Shirts shall be tucked in for proper uniform; games will not be stopped to have shirts tucked in.  
  3. Coaches, assistants, parents, anyone on the ball diamond must wear appropriate attire including proper enclosed footwear.  
  4. Coaches are to encourage proper dress code (Shirts tucked in).  No metal cleats are permitted.

 

  1. Base and Field Lining

It is the responsibility of the home team to have the field and diamond ready for play 15 minutes before game time. This includes the foul line, the batter’s box, and the pitching circle.

 

  1. Infield Warm-Up /Start Time

Infield warmups are limited to 5 minutes per team and no infields 5 minutes before official starting time. Failure in a team’s readiness to play within 15 minutes after the official time will cause the game to be awarded to the non-violating team. This will be the sole decision of the assigned umpires. Official times are as per the schedule.

 

  1. Batting

Teams will bat in a continuous order for the whole line up unless the player has been benched due to derogatory behavior, illness, or injury. A player arriving late can be added to the bottom of lineup anytime, with notification to the other team.

 

  1. Substitution
  1. Unlimited substitution will apply including pitchers (subject to pitching rule #13). Runners may be substituted for injured players only, whose injury prevents them from running.  The runner substitute is the last player out. 
  2. Catchers on base can be substituted when there are two out and be replaced by the last player out to run the bases for them. This is optional for coaches to use.
  1. Defensive Players

During regular league play and playoffs, any registered player shall not sit out two consecutive innings on defense before every player has sat one inning. No player shall sit a third inning before every player has sat 2 innings. Doing so may result in forfeiture of the game. This is called the Fair Play Rule. Coaches must document the defensive positions of all players during the game. If a game is protested, the defensive documents must be submitted to the Plate Umpire, normal protest procedure to apply. 

The following exceptions will apply: 

  1. Should a player arrive late for a game.
  2. Should a player act in a derogatory manner towards coaches, players, or umpires.
  3. Should a player become sick or injured during a game.
  4. No Fair Play Rules apply in U19 division and up.
  5. Jr. Men do not have an inning pitching limit.

ICSA would like coaches to encourage the players to try all positions (both infield and outfield) especially in the lower divisions. This is a House League and should be fun for all children.

 

  1. Pitching
  1. New Pitching Rules 2023 4. PITCHING (softball.ca). Summary:
    1. Pitcher must present the ball and pause for 2-5 seconds with the ball and both hands in front of the body.
    2. One foot must start on the pitcher’s plate and not lift off to create a rocking motion.
    3. Stepping foot can only move forward. No backward step allowed after the pause.
    4. Pitcher must continue to pitch once they have started.
    5. Pitcher must stay “in the shoot” when pitching (may take one step forward toward the batter.
    6. Pitchers may step or leap from the mound, land and with a continuous motion deliver the ball to the batter.
    7. Pitcher must not crow hop or push off from any place other than the pitcher’s plate.
    8. Pitcher has 20 seconds to release the next pitch after receiving the ball or after the umpire indicates “play”.
  2. U11 pitchers are allowed to pitch 2 innings maximum per game. Any portion of an inning is considered a full inning. 
  3. U13 may pitch a maximum of 3 innings per game. 
  4. U15 Pitchers may pitch a maximum of 4 innings (please remember the substitution rule). If extra innings are required, the pitcher is reinstated. 
  5. Jr. Men has no pitching limit.
  6. U19 and below, if a pitcher hits 3 batters in the same inning the pitcher is retired from pitching for the remainder of the game.  At the discretion of the umpire, the pitcher can be removed at any time.
  7. Rule must be used with Rule #12…Everyone must sit once before any player sits twice in a game.
  8. Intentional walks by the defense can now be done by word or mouth, no need to pitch the 4 balls (as of 2019)

 

  • Mercy Rule
  1. 3 outs or 6 runs shall constitute an inningAll innings are 6 run mercy i.e. All innings are closed for all divisions. 
  2. Game is over when one team leads another by 15 runs after 3 innings, 10 runs after 4 innings or 7 runs after 5 innings.

 

  1. Stealing Bases & Infield Fly

U13 and above, a runner may advance after the ball leaves the hand of the pitcher

There is no stealing at the U11 division & the infield fly rule does not apply.

  1. Base Running

Running the catcher or any defensive player will not be tolerated.

 

  1. Third Strike Rule

A runner may run to first base on a dropped third strike from U13 Boys and Girls division up. 

 

  1. Minimum Number of Players

A minimum number of 7 players are required to constitute a legal game.

 

  1. Calling up
  1. If a team has 8 players or less, they may call up a player to a maximum of 9. Players called up must be identified as such on the score sheet.  
  2. If you are calling up a player, you must call the coach first to get permission for that player to play for your team.  Players must be called from your own registration area.  If there is a conflict in the game times players must play for their registered teams.

 

  1. Playing Time
  1. U11 & U13 divisions: Length of game will be five innings. No new inning will be started after 1 hour and 20 minutes has elapsed. 
  2. U15 and up: Length of game is 7 innings. No new inning will be started after 1 hour and 30 minutes has elapsed. 
  3. Time starts when umpires and coaches meet at the plate. Plate meetings usually start 5 minutes early to start the game on time. Scorekeepers should note the start time and give it to the umpires. 
  4. N.B. Umpires do not have to call “Last inning”. One hour of playing time constitutes a game and the score reverts to the last completed inning. The bottom half of the last inning will be played regardless of the score unless the Home team does not wish to continue or the umpire feels there are extenuating circumstances that could be detrimental to the teams. 

 

  1. Regular, Cancelled & Rescheduled Games
  1. All regular games will be scheduled and an effort will be made to play the game as scheduled. Coaches are obliged to call up from a younger division if they are unable to field a full team of players. 
  2. Games cancelled due to extenuating circumstances (exams, graduation and trips): The coach of the canceling team must notify the other coach within a minimum of 24 hours before the start time. The home coach will then notify the appropriate persons in their association.
  3. Games cancelled due to rain, field conditions or other unforeseen circumstances: The coach of the home team is responsible for cancellation of the game and shall notifying opposing coach, the umpire (or their umpire-in-chief) and the convenor within a minimum of 1 hour and 30 minutes prior to the scheduled game time. 
  4. A game in progress terminated by the umpire due to inclement weather or field conditions: If 1 hours of game time has been completed, the score reverts back to the last complete inning. If not completed, it is the responsibility of the home team to reschedule the game.
  5. The first sign of lightning requires a game delay for up to 15 minutes and if it has not cleared, the game will be cancelled.
  6. Rescheduling of games shall be the responsibility of the home team coach. 
    • An alternate date shall be determined in consultation with the other coach, field availability and umpires. 
    • Rescheduling must be done within 10 days if possible. After that, if no consensus can be reached within an additional 2 days, GKSA coaches should contact the convenor, who may set the date and time and it will be binding.  
    • 4 point games are accepted at the next game in place of a reschedule. 
    • If no agreement for reschedule can be reached by the teams then each team will only get one point.
    • If by the end of the season, c) and f) have not been followed, then the home team shall be at fault and the game shall be forfeited and 2 pts awarded to the visitor. The convenor must always be notified of cancelled games.

 

  1. Scorekeeping
  1. Scorebooks must include all player first names, last names, jersey numbers and umpire name(s). 
  2. Ball Scores must be submitted to https://greaterkingstonsoftball.com. The winning team should submit the score or the home team for ties. Go to “Season” then “Score Reporting”.
  3. Enter Division, Date, Home team, Visit team, Score.
  4. Numbered shirts are required for U13 division and above.
  5. Tied games are acceptable in league play.
  6. In case of ejection, the coach shall have the person’s name, time, and date of ejection put in scorebook and signed by plate umpire.
  • Protests (Rule 1, Section 2, Article 9 in CASA rule book)

A formal written protest should contain the following information:

  1. Date, time and place of the game.
  2. Names of the Umpires and Scorekeepers
  3. Rule or section of the official rule or local rules under which the protest is being made.
  4. The decision; and the condition surrounding the making of the decision.
  5. All essential facts involved in the matter protested. 
  6. Both umpires are required to submit an umpire’s report.
  7. It then must be forwarded to the ICSA UIC (Umpire in Chief) who will forward to convener of their division, unless there is a conflict of interest, in which case it will be passed on to the ICSA Committee. Formal written protests must be made within 48 hours, with a deposit of $25.00 accompanying the protest. If the protest is upheld, the money will be refunded.

 

  1. Violations
  1. A player’s, coach’s umpire’s or Association’s failure to comply with the ICSA Rules of Play or Official’s decision.
  2. Unsportsmanlike conduct or the use of abusive or insulting language on or near the playing field.
  3. Aggressive bat or helmet throwing.
  4. Physical threat or abuse.
  5. A coach, manager or team playing an ineligible player (including a player under suspension). All games played by the offending team in which ineligible players played shall be forfeited and the coach will be suspended for the rest of the season.

 

  1. Ejections/Suspensions
  1. Any of the above violations may result in players, coaches, managers, or spectators being ejected/suspended, and shall result in automatic ejection from the game. Failure to comply with the Umpire may result in forfeiture of the game. An umpire’s report is required for all ejections and formal protests sent to ICSA UIC. Failure to submit a report could lead to a fine for that umpire association.
  2. A game ejection for any reason carries an automatic further 1 game suspension (excluding the game the ejection occurred in).  Depending on the cause of the offence, further suspension may be set by the Convenor in conjunction with ICSA.
  3. A player, coach, manager, umpire or ICSA area representative may be suspended for any other reason by their own association or if there is a majority consent of the ICSA executive.
  4. Suspensions will continue into the next softball season and ICSA will honor other softball association suspensions.
  5. All suspensions must be recorded and the following people notified: the appropriate convenor, the ICSA Secretary and the ICSA Chairperson. The Convenor will notify the opposing coaches of any suspended players or coaches. 
  6. All ejections and suspensions beyond the one game mandatory may be appealed to the appropriate Convenor in conjunction with ICSA. All appeals should be made within 24 hours from the suspension.
  7. Player Ejection – Teams can start game play with 8 players in regular game plat. If there is an ejection that reduces the team to 8 players, they cannot continue the game. If the team starts with 9 and there’s an ejection reducing the number of players to 8, the game is over and the team with the ejection forfeits the game, regardless of the score. If there are more than 9 players to begin and one player is ejected, the game will proceed.
  1. Coaches
  1. Shall keep an accurate scorebook.
  2. Shall have scorebooks signed by the umpire to ensure each team has the same score at the end of the game.
  3. Shall abide and support the ICSA Rules & Regulations.
  4. In case of ejection, shall have the person’s name, time and date of ejection put in scorebook and signed by plate umpire. The convenor will be notified of ejections.
  5. Shall ensure their players and coaches display sportsman like conduct at all times at the ballpark. 

 

  1. Umpires
  1. It is mandatory that all umpires be registered with Softball Ontario prior to their first game in the current year. Failure to provide a registered umpire may result in a forfeiture by the home team.
  2. Shall provide proof of current card number, if requested.
  3. Shall abide by and support the ICSA Rules of Play.
  4. Shall in the event of an ejection, record the ejected player’s name in the team’s scorebook and sign it. The umpires shall also provide a written report to the ICSA UIC within 24 hours of the ejection. This report shall include name, team, date, place, and reason for ejection. This report will be forwarded to the convener and ICSA secretary. Umpire shall not umpire until report has been submitted to the ICSA UIC.
  5. After the game, shall remain on the field of play in a position to observe the post-game handshake.
  6. Shall sign scorebooks at the end of the game to ensure each team has the same score. Discrepancies are the responsibility of the scorekeepers to work out.
  7. Shall not officiate for same age or older players unless previously authorized by ICSA executive.
  8. Must be at least 12 years of age.

 

  • Proof of insurance must be presented by each organization to be verified.

 

  1. ZERO TOLERANCE POLICY     
  1. Effective August 2022, we have a Zero Tolerance Policy for drinking/drugs during the game. This is not limited to just players but also spectators and includes before, during and after the game on ball grounds. Spectators who are found drinking or doing drugs on the ball grounds will be asked to leave. Player(s) caught drinking or doing drugs will be asked to leave and will not be allowed to play for the remainder of the season. If anyone who is asked to leave refuses to comply, the police will be called and the player(s) will not be allowed to play the following season either. 
  2. Smoking and/or vaping is not permitted on the fields or benches. If you need to light up, please be respectful and step away. 
  3. Aggressive behaviour (yelling, swearing or threats of any kind, etc.) will not be tolerated and will result in ejection from the ball grounds. If anyone who is asked to leave refuses to comply, the police will be called.
  4. Bat and helmet throwing is considered a serious offence and will not be tolerated.  Players and/or coaches will be ejected from the game and suspended from the next two (2) regular games. Coaches may bring any issues they are experiencing to their convenors for support.

If you have any questions or concerns about any of the above rules or regulations, please contact your convenor.

Softball Canada Coaches Guides – Great new resources for coaches of all ages, including full practice plans with drills.

“Each of us in softball are a part of the game we all enjoy.

We expect all participants to demonstrate courtesy and respect

at all times. Everyone deserves to be treated with dignity.

This will be the guiding principle of conduct in this game.”

Coach’s Code of Conduct

I will…

  • Treat everyone fairly, by treating them with respect and dignity.
  • Direct any necessary feedback at the performance not the person.
  • Teach all players the skills of the game, the values of teamwork and the meaning of good sportsmanship.
  • Lead by example and always demonstrate good sportsmanship during games by treating officials and opponents with respect.
  • Provide encouragement and positive direction to players during games.
  • Uphold the rules, regulations, and policies of my softball organization.
  • Refrain from public criticism of my fellow coaches.
  • Abstain from and discourage the use of drugs, alcohol and tobacco products in conjunction with my softball coaching responsibilities.
  • Never provide underage players with alcohol or drugs.
  • Communicate with the parents on my team and inform them of all team rules, practices, and games.
  • Ensure the activity being undertaken is suitable for the age, experience, ability, and fitness level of the players I coach.
  • Refrain from the use of profane, insulting, harassing or otherwise offensive language or behaviour while coaching.
  • Report any perceived misconduct by a coach, player, parent or official to the proper authorities so it can be dealt with appropriately.

You are responsible for making sure that the bases are put away at the end of the game.

You are responsible for making sure that your team equipment is at each game and that all players are dressed appropriately.

  1. Closed toed shoes
  2. Shirts should be tucked in
  3. U11-U19 shirts need to be tucked in and number visible on back.
  4. U7-U19 players have to have helmets with  cages and straps done up.
  5. U11-U19 Pitchers must wear defensive masks.

If you need to cancel a game due to weather or not enough players to field a team, you need to contact the other coach & your convenor 1 hour prior to the start of game. Then you need to contact your teams as well. 

The codes for the diamonds are 2490 there you will find the keys to unlock the bathrooms. Please remember you are responsible for unlocking and locking them back up if you are the home team. 

If you want to try and reschedule a game due to weather etc., that will be between you and the other coach to schedule. You will need to contact your convenor to work out a date the field is available. Hint I usually would suggest asking for a couple dates from your convenor and then taking those to the other coach. 

If you are a coach for U11 or U13, please remember to submit your scores to [email protected] after the game. It is the responsibility of the home team. 

Please complete in the following format. 

Example,

Subject: U15-month-day

Battersea 6, Sydenham 4



Battersea #1 5167 Battersea Road, Battersea, ON K0H1H0

Battersea #2 4772 Latimer Road, Inverary, ON K0H1X0

Central Frontenac (Parham) 1164 Wagarville Road, Parham, ON K0H2K0

Harrowsmith 4500 Centennial Park Road, Harrowsmith, ON K0H 1V0

Inverary 4010 Perth Road, Inverary, ON K0H1X0

Perth Road 5178 Wilmer Road, Perth Road, ON K0H2L0

Sydenham The Point 4410 Point Road, Sydenham, ON K0H2T0

Sydenham Keeley Road 2042 Park Valley Road, Sydenham, ON K0H2T0

Verona 4504 Verona Sand Road, Verona, K0H2W0



U7 & U9 Coach’s Guides are part of the Timbit Softball Program. FCMSA has subscribed to this program and you will find the access information in your coach’s handbook. Please go to the Softball Canada website to sign in and access the program: Introduction (softball.ca)

U11 does not have a specific program outlined by Softball Canada. Please use the U13 program, with attention to the age of the children in that age group.

U13, U15 and U17 Coach’s Guides can be found here:

U19 does not have a specific program outlined by Softball Canada at this time. Please use the U17 program.

COACH’S CODE OF CONDUCT

  1. I will treat everyone fairly, by treating them with respect and dignity.
  2. I will direct any necessary feedback at the performance not the person.
  3. I will teach all players the skills of the game, the values of teamwork and the meaning of good sportsmanship.
  4. I will lead by example and always demonstrate good sportsmanship during games by treating officials and opponents with respect.
  5. I will provide encouragement and positive direction to players during games.
  6. I will uphold the rules, regulations and policies of my softball organization.
  7. I will refrain from public criticism of my fellow coaches.
  8. I will abstain from and discourage the use of drugs, alcohol and tobacco products in conjunction with my softball coaching responsibilities.
  9. I will never provide underage players with alcohol or drugs.
  10. I will communicate with the parents on my team and inform them of all team rules, practices and games.
  11. I will ensure the activity being undertaken is suitable for the age, experience, ability and fitness level of the players I coach.
  12. I will refrain from the use of profane, insulting, harassing or otherwise offensive language or behaviour while coaching.
  13. I will report any perceived misconduct by a coach, player, parent or official to the proper authorities so it can be dealt with appropriately.

Softball Canada’s Athlete Development Matrix – jump to the age range you are coaching to find out what skills are appropriate to teach at each age group.

GROWTH & DEVELOPMENT

3-5 YEARS

  •   Highly individualistic, even egocentric
  •   May be afraid of strangers
  •   Boys and girls may be involved in the same activities without any problem

General Remarks

  •   Cannot see the difference between what is real and what is not
  •   Lives in an imaginary world
  •   Constantly imitates
  •   Highly dependent on parents
  •   Needs to have a well-established routine in daily activities

Social

Learning

  •   Period of life where significant progress is seen in areas such as ability to learn, intelligence, and language; is capable of understanding concepts such as age, time, space, and morality (good-bad)
  •   Limited ability to concentrate (very short attention span); difficulty understanding abstract concepts
  •   Limited ability to reason and solve problems
  •   Cannot take into account most of the information or stimuli from the environment

Physical

  •   Growth rate is slightly reduced compared to the first two years of life; body proportions become more balanced; head is fragile
  •   Resting heart rate and heart rate during exercise higher compared to adults
  •   Development of the nervous system takes place at a very high rate during this period; growth of the brain isapproximately 75% completed at three years of age, and 90% at the age of six
  •   Hand-eye coordination is improved, as well as speed/rhythm of execution of fundamental movements; increasedcontrol of movements, which nonetheless remain somewhat jerky
  •   Motor performance is highly linked to kinesthetic and touch senses
  •   At age five, activities such as walking or running are usually well mastered and can be incorporated into games;35 metres can be run in approximately 10 seconds

Preferences

  •   Likes activities that stimulate several different senses and the imagination
  •   Likes simple games with easy-to-understand tasks and rules
  •   Prefers individual activities, yet will share his or her environment of play with others

To Avoid

  •   Any activity that is structured or requires attention
  •   Activities that feature repeated impacts or where there is a risk of collision
  •   Repetitive activities (to prevent boredom and also overuse injuries)
  •   Exposure to a cold or a hot environment
  •   Comparisons with other children
  •   Emphasizing the result or performance

Suggestions

  •   Activities that feature a variety of motor experiences, and where the emphasis is put on the kinesthetic sense (i.e. knowledge of the body and location of body parts in space)
  •   Simple explanations and provision of manual assistance to the child during the execution of the movement
  •   All activities should take the form of games
  •   The instructions and the teaching must be specific, simple, and aimed at a very clear objective
  •   Creation of small groups where activities take the form of games, with focus on psychomotor development(balance, coordination, movements in all directions, various forms of movement). Where possible, parents

    should be involved, thus creating an opportunity to consolidate a close relationship with the child through play

  •   Children need to be praised and complimented generously and regularly for their efforts

Growth and Development – v.2 – September 28, 2018
© 2018 Softball Canada & Coaching Association of Canada 1

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GROWTH & DEVELOPMENT

6-7 YEARS

General Remarks

  •   At this age the child remains fairly individualistic and self-centred; needs a lot of attention and must be in the company of an adult and/or in a small group
  •   High dependence on parents
  •   Acknowledges the coach as the leader
  •   Needs to have a well-established routine in daily activities
  •   Has no athletic or competitive background
  •   Interest for sport activities may begin to grow

Social

  •   Rather individualistic; often tries to expand social circle and the number of friends, especially with individuals of the same sex
  •   Sometimes shy
  •   Is conscious of own feelings and emotions, and of those of others toward him/her; can play on these feelings toobtain privileges
  •   Boys and girls can be involved in the same activities without difficulty

Learning

  •   Learns best by observing, quickly followed by doing
  •   Short attention span (a few minutes)
  •   Ability to reason is limited to what is readily observable
  •   May be afraid of the unknown
  •   Is likely to imitate and be highly imaginative; is often curious and wants to know everything

Physical

  •   Development of the nervous system is almost complete
  •   Rate of physical growth is constant, yet relatively slow; on average, little difference is observed between boysand girls with regard to height and weight
  •   Head is still very fragile; bones, tendons, muscles, and ligaments cannot sustain heavy loads
  •   Always seems to be moving; coordination is not very well developed; endurance is low
  •   Resting heart rate and heart rate during exercise are higher than for adults; resting heart rate is approximately100 bpm
  •   Aerobic metabolism predominates during effort; low anaerobic capacity
  •   Sweating mechanism of children is not well developed, which reduces their capacity to dissipate heat duringexercise; children are at an increased risk of heat injuries; children cool off rapidly, and do not tolerate cold well

Preferences

  •   Enjoys individual activities, with some interaction with the group (e.g. tag); likes to throw, catch, hit, kick, run, jump, climb, and other activities where the whole body is involved
  •   Enjoys all types of activities that require imagination or involve imitating an adult
  •   Games should encourage creativity and have few rules

To Avoid

  •   Activities that require repeated impact or wherein there is a risk of collision
  •   Repetitive activities and activities that feature too much structure (to prevent boredom and also overuse injuries)
  •   Exercising in a very cold or hot environment
  •   Using equipment that is not designed for children (i.e. too big, too heavy)
  •   Specialization in a sport or in a position
  •   Repetition of all-out efforts lasting between 20 and 60 seconds; work against a high resistance; prolongedaerobic endurance efforts
  •   Emphasizing the result or performance
  •   Negative competitive experiences
  •   Comparisons with other children
  •   Lengthy explanations
  •   Negative criticism

Growth and Development – v.2 – September 28, 2018
© 2018 Softball Canada & Coaching Association of Canada 2

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GROWTH & DEVELOPMENT

6-7 YEARS (Continued)

Suggestions

  •   All activities should take the form of games; conditions in which activities or games take place should be varied to promote the development of a variety of motor patterns and skills
  •   Rules should be adapted to encourage a high degree of interaction between and involvement of participants, and to increase the probability of success during the activity; modified, scaled-down equipment should be used
  •   Demonstrations should be highly specific, simple, and aimed at the achievement of a well-defined objective; duration of activities should be relatively short, and exercises should change frequently
  •   Children need to be praised and complimented generously and regularly for their efforts; feedback should focus on one point only; choose the most important one; children should be encouraged to be proud of their own performance, and to congratulate others for theirs
  •   Basic motor abilities should be developed through games; techniques should be introduced in ways that stimulate the child’s imagination (e.g. refer to a funny situation of the child’s life, a cartoon)
  •   Encourage children to drink water, and in hot conditions, ensure that there are plenty of beverages available

Examples

  •   Relay or obstacle races
  •   Somersaults, pirouettes, jumps, runs, lateral movements, rope climbing, rope skipping, use of play structures,sliding, throwing, catching, passing a ball with hands or feet; hitting a ball
  •   Basic strength exercises using the child’s own body weight (push-ups, pull-ups, squats with own body weight)

GROWTH & DEVELOPMENT

8-9 YEARS

General Remarks

  •   Has a high degree of imagination; being active is very important; likes to work, learn, and accomplish things
  •   Still needs a well-established routine in daily activities
  •   Wants to act on his/her own; does not like conventions or norms, but will accept the coach’s instructions if there

    is a sense that he/she participates in the establishment of the rules and conditions governing the activity

  •   Very little or no athletic background
  •   Interest in sport activities is often high
  •   Some early developers may be entering puberty, particularly girls.

Social

  •   Is still individualistic and self-centred, but shows an increasing interest for the group; wants to be accepted by others, and usually shows a great deal of loyalty toward the team
  •   Needs praise and positive feedback
  •   Is conscious of own feelings and emotions, and of those of others toward him/her; can play on these feelings to

    obtain privileges

  •   Boys and girls may be involved in the same activities without difficulty
  •   Seeks the approval of others; may reject opportunities to interact with individuals of the opposite sex

Learning

  •   Accepts following instructions to learn faster, and reacts favourably to positive feedback/praise; ability to concentrate and to pay attention is relatively good; can begin to make some generalizations
  •   The emphasis should be on motor development and the learning of skills in a variety of sports
  •   It is possible to start teaching the rules of the game and fundamental tactical principles
  •   Is capable of assessing the angles of moving objects (e.g. balls), yet may still have some difficulty distinguishing

    between right and left

  •   Ability to reason and solve problems is limited to what can be observed

Physical

  •   Physical characteristics are similar to children aged 6-7, but coordination and stamina are better; growth rate is slow, which tends to allow for a greater degree of motor control and autonomy
  •   The development of the nervous system is almost complete
  •   Reaction time is slow; shows an increased ability to make coordinated and quick movements
  •   Large muscle masses (e.g. the legs) show a greater degree of development compared to smaller ones (e.g.

    arms, hands)

  •   Very little potential for increased muscle mass (hypertrophy); strength gains result primarily from increased

    coordination and neural factors

  •   Resting heart rate and heart rate during exercise are higher than for adults; aerobic metabolism predominates

    during effort and anaerobic capacity is low

  •   The sweating mechanism of children is not well developed, which reduces their capacity to dissipate heat during

    exercise; children are at an increased risk of heat injuries

Preferences

  •   Enjoys individual or group games, and drills where participants are paired
  •   Likes activities where the whole body is involved (e.g. jumping, running)
  •   Likes to assume some responsibility, and to take part in decisions relating to games or activities played
  •   Prefers activities that will allow him/her to shine and to be successful

Growth and Development – v.2 – September 28, 2018
© 2018 Softball Canada & Coaching Association of Canada 4

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GROWTH & DEVELOPMENT

8-9 YEARS (Continued)

To Avoid

  •   Activities that feature repeated impacts or where there is a risk of collision; repetitive activities (for reasons of boredom but also to prevent overuse injuries); activities that are too structured
  •   Mechanical and/or highly repetitive approach to the teaching of fundamental techniques; use of equipment that is not designed for children
  •   Repetition of all-out efforts lasting between 20 and 60 seconds; work against a high resistance; prolonged aerobic endurance efforts
  •   Exposure to a cold or hot environment
  •   Specialization in a sport or for a position
  •   Emphasizing winning and creating a pressure to perform
  •   Comparisons with other children
  •   Negative competitive experiences
  •   Lengthy explanations
  •   Negative criticism

Suggestions

  •   Establish guidelines for acceptable behaviour, and act in a constant and predictable manner; however, accept each child unconditionally
  •   Children need to be praised and complimented generously and regularly for their efforts; feedback must focus on one point only; choose the most important one; emphasize the following: development of confidence, self- esteem, peer interaction, cooperation, having fun, putting winning and losing into perspective, and giving a 100% effort
  •   Demonstrations must be highly specific, simple, and aimed at the achievement of a well-defined objective; duration of activities must be relatively short, and exercises must change frequently
  •   Focus on activities that are aimed at developing coordination, balance, and proper motor patterns; encourage participation in a variety of sports and activities; encourage the use of both right and left hands and feet whenever possible to enhance motor patterns and improve coordination; good age to use speed games
  •   Modified, scaled-down equipment should be used; competitive games where ability levels are matched; create opportunities for the child to demonstrate the progress he/she has made in a way that will enhance self-image; participants should have the opportunity to take some responsibility, and to assess the impact of such decisions; rules should be adapted to encourage a high degree of interaction between and involvement of participants, and to increase the probability of success during the activity
  •   Encourage children to drink water, and ensure that plenty of beverages are available when exercising in the heat

GROWTH & DEVELOPMENT

10-11 YEARS

General Remarks

  •   Develops conscience, morality, and values
  •   May display a highly competitive attitude (wants to look like a competent performer)
  •   Marked distinctions between boys and girls begin to be visible, particularly toward the end of this period
  •   May want to break free from the authority of adults, and may show a defiant attitude
  •   Athletic background may be highly variable among participants; participation in sport activities is often done on a

    seasonal basis, in programs that can be relatively short (a few weeks)

  •   Time devoted to general training and acquisition of a variety of skills and motor patterns should be greater than

    time spent training for a specific activity, or preparing for, or being engaged in, competition

Social

  •   Is usually very interested in group activities, and creates strong links with a few friends
  •   Wants to enjoy a greater degree of autonomy, and wants to help
  •   Shows a high degree of loyalty to the group
  •   Begins to be interested in individuals of the opposite sex, without showing it openly
  •   Expresses his/her feelings easily (e.g. anger, sadness)
  •   Boys and girls can be involved together in the same activities

Learning

  •   Child begins to show some ability to deal with abstract concepts, yet prefers concrete examples
  •   Emphasis should still be on general motor development and the learning of skills in a variety of sports, however

    fine motor control improves during this period

  •   It is possible to start teaching a few specialized techniques, as well as fundamental tactical principles; the rules

    of the games should be well understood

  •   Capacity to concentrate increases (can stay focused for approximately 10 minutes at a time)

Physical

  •   Strength and endurance gains are possible as a result of fitness training, but improvements are also directly related to growth; very little potential for increased muscle mass (hypertrophy). Strength gains result primarily from increased coordination and neural factors
  •   Flexibility improves but it should also be trained
  •   Reaction time is relatively slow, however good visual acuity and depth perception allow for better performance in

    throwing/catching exercises

  •   Sweating mechanism of children is not well developed, which reduces their capacity to dissipate heat during

    exercise; children are at an increased risk of heat injuries

  •   In girls, the second half of this period marks the beginning of a major growth spurt that will last approximately 3.5

    years; some girls may have their first menstruation as early as 11 years old

  •   In some boys, puberty will begin at the end of this period.

Preferences

 Enjoys games that feature some competition, team games, as well as activities that require some form of effort or that represent some sort of a physical challenge

To Avoid

  •   Activities that feature repeated impacts or where there is a risk of collision; repetitive activities (to prevent boredom and also overuse injuries); activities that feature too much structure; exposure to a cold or hot environment
  •   Use of equipment that is not designed for children; repetition of all-out efforts lasting between 20 and 60 seconds; work against a high resistance; prolonged aerobic endurance efforts
  •   Specialization in a sport or for a position on the team
  •   Emphasizing winning and creating a pressure to perform
  •   Comparisons with other children
  •   Unpleasant or non-gratifying competitive experiences
  •   Mechanical and/or highly repetitive approach to the teaching of fundamental techniques

Growth and Development – v.2 – September 28, 2018
© 2018 Softball Canada & Coaching Association of Canada 6

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GROWTH & DEVELOPMENT

10-11 YEARS (Continued)

Suggestions

  •   Participation in several sports/activities should be encouraged
  •   Rules should be adapted to encourage a high degree of interaction between and involvement of participants, and

    to increase the probability of success during the activity; modified, scaled-down equipment should be used

  •   Demonstrations should be highly specific, simple, and aimed at the achievement of a well-defined objective;

    duration of activities should be relatively short, and exercises should change frequently

  •   Time when participants are actively involved in activities during practices should be maximized
  •   Children need to be praised and complimented generously and regularly for their efforts
  •   Feedback should focus on one point only; choose the most important one; emphasize the development of

    confidence, self-esteem, peer interaction, cooperation, having fun, putting winning and losing into perspective,

    and giving a 100% effort

  •   Encourage children to drink water, and ensure plenty of beverages are available when exercising in the heat

GROWTH & DEVELOPMENT

12-15 YEARS

General Remarks

  •   Period where major growth spurts occur; in each sex, large differences in physical maturation may be observed in individuals of the same chronological age; in general, girls are more mature than boys
  •   Acquires moral concepts, values, and attitudes that make it possible to relate meaningfully to society; positive role models are important
  •   Opinion of friends tends to be more important than that of the coach; participants want to look like, or be perceived as competent performers
  •   This is a period of major change during which participants are likely to challenge authority, be very critical, question decisions, and ask for justification
  •   Competition becomes increasingly important to some participants; time devoted to general training should be greater than time spent training specifically for a sport, or time spent competing

Social

  •   It is important to separate boys and girls for activities and competition
  •   Emotional instability may be observed due to the rate at which physiological changes occur
  •   Shows a greater desire for independence; this can be a time of rejection of parental authority and, in general, a

    period when there is a high degree of confrontation with adults

  •   Develops close relations with individuals of both sexes; enjoys being more independent, and having more

    responsibility; a great deal of interest toward sexuality is observed toward the end of this period

  •   This period is important for the development of values such as respect for others, fair play, and a work ethic

Learning

  •   Begins to think like an adult. It is important to take into account the different maturity level between boys and girls; interests and abilities differ between the sexes; challenges are often very appealing
  •   Needs change on a regular basis; is highly curious; capacity to concentrate increases (can stay focused for 20 minutes or more at a time); increasingly capable of abstract thinking
  •   This is a good period to consolidate the development of fine motor skills, to teach more complex tactical notions, and to encourage decision-making in specific situations
  •   Specialization by sport and for a position can begin; however, participation in a variety of sports that have different demands should be encouraged

Physical

  •   Girls: The development of secondary sexual characteristics (pubic hair, breasts) begins around 11-11.5 years of age. On average, the growth spurt begins shortly thereafter. Maximal growth rate (or peak height velocity, PHV) is normally observed between 11.5 and 12.5, and menarche (first menstruations) occurs approximately one year after PHV. During this period, body fat content tends to increase progressively, and typical female body forms (hips) appear due to hormonal effect. As a result of these changes, performance often plateaus or may even decline for a short period of time. In addition, for a period of several months following menarche, girls may have difficulty sustaining heavy training loads. Girls should be counselled that this phenomenon is normal, and that their performance will continue to improve after this temporary phase.
  •   Boys: The development of secondary sexual characteristics (pubic hair, testes, penis size) occurs progressively around age 11. On average, the growth spurt begins at age 13, and PHV is reached at around age 14-15. Significant gains in muscle mass and in strength typically occur one year after PHV (i.e. at around ages 15-16) due to higher levels of testosterone; this age represents a good time to initiate strength training with heavier loads if this athletic ability is important in the sport.
  •   During the growth spurt, feet and hands tend to grow first, followed by the legs and the arms; long bones are fragile during this time; growth is accompanied by an increase in body weight throughout the period
  •   As a result of the rapid growth spurts that occur during PHV, body parts can be disproportionate; this can have a direct effect on coordination and the ability to perform certain skills that were well mastered before
  •   This period is well suited for the development of aerobic fitness, as well as flexibility
  •   Strength and speed-endurance training can begin toward the end of this period

Growth and Development – v.2 – September 28, 2018
© 2018 Softball Canada & Coaching Association of Canada 8

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GROWTH & DEVELOPMENT

12-15 YEARS (Continued)

Preferences

  •   Enjoys challenges and the opportunity to accomplish individual feats
  •   Accomplishment of actions that are likely to be looked at or admired by peers/friends
  •   Activities that contribute to the development of fine skills/dexterity and that do not require too much strength (i.e.

    racket sports, swimming, golf, skiing), team games, situations where some form of competition exists

To Avoid

  •   Repetition of all-out efforts lasting between 20 and 60 seconds before or during PHV; work against a high resistance; prolonged aerobic endurance efforts that involve impact on the joints (i.e. running on a hard surface such as asphalt); repetitive activities (to prevent boredom and also overuse injuries)
  •   High mechanical stress (compression forces) on the long bones and the backbone, e.g. lifting heavy weights
  •   Programs where the number of competitions is greater than the number of practices
  •   Pressure to perform
  •   Negative competitive experiences

Suggestions

  •   Time when participants are actively involved in activities during a practice should be as high as possible
  •   Acquisition of more complex or sport-specific techniques; explanations can be more elaborate, where

    appropriate

  •   Correct execution of movements must be emphasized if strength training is performed
  •   Appropriate supervision of training activities is important to prevent unnecessary risks that adolescents may take
  •   Games emphasizing skill and dexterity
  •   Opportunities to meet or interact with sport role models (athletes or coaches); competitions or tournaments that

    involve trips; social activities among the team/training group

  •   When an athlete or participant who has reached puberty experiences pain in the joints (e.g. shoulders, elbows,

    knees), or if he or she now seems to have difficulty completing workouts that could previously be sustained with no difficulty, training loads (amount-frequency-intensity) may have to be decreased to avoid undue stress on the athlete’s body

  •   Depending on the maturity level, involvement of the adolescent in roles such as officiating, or the leadership of certain activities (e.g. leading a warm-up or cool-down)

GROWTH & DEVELOPMENT

12-15 YEARS

General Remarks

  •   Period where major growth spurts occur; in each sex, large differences in physical maturation may be observed in individuals of the same chronological age; in general, girls are more mature than boys
  •   Acquires moral concepts, values, and attitudes that make it possible to relate meaningfully to society; positive role models are important
  •   Opinion of friends tends to be more important than that of the coach; participants want to look like, or be perceived as competent performers
  •   This is a period of major change during which participants are likely to challenge authority, be very critical, question decisions, and ask for justification
  •   Competition becomes increasingly important to some participants; time devoted to general training should be greater than time spent training specifically for a sport, or time spent competing

Social

  •   It is important to separate boys and girls for activities and competition
  •   Emotional instability may be observed due to the rate at which physiological changes occur
  •   Shows a greater desire for independence; this can be a time of rejection of parental authority and, in general, aperiod when there is a high degree of confrontation with adults
  •   Develops close relations with individuals of both sexes; enjoys being more independent, and having moreresponsibility; a great deal of interest toward sexuality is observed toward the end of this period
  •   This period is important for the development of values such as respect for others, fair play, and a work ethic

Learning

  •   Begins to think like an adult. It is important to take into account the different maturity level between boys and girls; interests and abilities differ between the sexes; challenges are often very appealing
  •   Needs change on a regular basis; is highly curious; capacity to concentrate increases (can stay focused for 20 minutes or more at a time); increasingly capable of abstract thinking
  •   This is a good period to consolidate the development of fine motor skills, to teach more complex tactical notions, and to encourage decision-making in specific situations
  •   Specialization by sport and for a position can begin; however, participation in a variety of sports that have different demands should be encouraged

Physical

  •   Girls: The development of secondary sexual characteristics (pubic hair, breasts) begins around 11-11.5 years of age. On average, the growth spurt begins shortly thereafter. Maximal growth rate (or peak height velocity, PHV) is normally observed between 11.5 and 12.5, and menarche (first menstruations) occurs approximately one year after PHV. During this period, body fat content tends to increase progressively, and typical female body forms (hips) appear due to hormonal effect. As a result of these changes, performance often plateaus or may even decline for a short period of time. In addition, for a period of several months following menarche, girls may have difficulty sustaining heavy training loads. Girls should be counselled that this phenomenon is normal, and that their performance will continue to improve after this temporary phase.
  •   Boys: The development of secondary sexual characteristics (pubic hair, testes, penis size) occurs progressively around age 11. On average, the growth spurt begins at age 13, and PHV is reached at around age 14-15. Significant gains in muscle mass and in strength typically occur one year after PHV (i.e. at around ages 15-16) due to higher levels of testosterone; this age represents a good time to initiate strength training with heavier loads if this athletic ability is important in the sport.
  •   During the growth spurt, feet and hands tend to grow first, followed by the legs and the arms; long bones are fragile during this time; growth is accompanied by an increase in body weight throughout the period
  •   As a result of the rapid growth spurts that occur during PHV, body parts can be disproportionate; this can have a direct effect on coordination and the ability to perform certain skills that were well mastered before
  •   This period is well suited for the development of aerobic fitness, as well as flexibility
  •   Strength and speed-endurance training can begin toward the end of this period

Growth and Development – v.2 – September 28, 2018
© 2018 Softball Canada & Coaching Association of Canada 8

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GROWTH & DEVELOPMENT

12-15 YEARS (Continued)

Preferences

  •   Enjoys challenges and the opportunity to accomplish individual feats
  •   Accomplishment of actions that are likely to be looked at or admired by peers/friends
  •   Activities that contribute to the development of fine skills/dexterity and that do not require too much strength (i.e.racket sports, swimming, golf, skiing), team games, situations where some form of competition exists

To Avoid

  •   Repetition of all-out efforts lasting between 20 and 60 seconds before or during PHV; work against a high resistance; prolonged aerobic endurance efforts that involve impact on the joints (i.e. running on a hard surface such as asphalt); repetitive activities (to prevent boredom and also overuse injuries)
  •   High mechanical stress (compression forces) on the long bones and the backbone, e.g. lifting heavy weights
  •   Programs where the number of competitions is greater than the number of practices
  •   Pressure to perform
  •   Negative competitive experiences

Suggestions

  •   Time when participants are actively involved in activities during a practice should be as high as possible
  •   Acquisition of more complex or sport-specific techniques; explanations can be more elaborate, whereappropriate
  •   Correct execution of movements must be emphasized if strength training is performed
  •   Appropriate supervision of training activities is important to prevent unnecessary risks that adolescents may take
  •   Games emphasizing skill and dexterity
  •   Opportunities to meet or interact with sport role models (athletes or coaches); competitions or tournaments thatinvolve trips; social activities among the team/training group
  •   When an athlete or participant who has reached puberty experiences pain in the joints (e.g. shoulders, elbows,knees), or if he or she now seems to have difficulty completing workouts that could previously be sustained with no difficulty, training loads (amount-frequency-intensity) may have to be decreased to avoid undue stress on the athlete’s body
  •   Depending on the maturity level, involvement of the adolescent in roles such as officiating, or the leadership of certain activities (e.g. leading a warm-up or cool-down)

GROWTH & DEVELOPMENT

16-17 YEARS

General Remarks

  •   At the end of puberty, the individual is no longer a child, but is not completely an adult yet, which can create some identity problems
  •   Late developers may still be experiencing the effects of puberty
  •   The participant seeks greater autonomy, and progressively becomes more mature emotionally
  •   Specialization in a sport or for a position may require year-long preparation; however, training may remain a

    seasonal process, particularly at the beginning of this period

  •   Training volume increases progressively from one year to another, and may reach 15 hours or more per week,

    depending on the sport, at the end of this period

  •   In participants who are training seriously, the amount of time devoted to general training, specific training, and

    preparing for competition or competing is approximately the same

Social

  •   Sexuality becomes very important and participants seek intimacy with others
  •   Although a greater degree of independence is sought, friends remain very important
  •   Wants to be considered an adult
  •   Often, the coach will be a role model; the participant will frequently reject parental authority
  •   Participants become increasingly aware of their own values
  •   Social activities are very important

Learning

  •   Social awareness increases, and as a result participants develop a broader range of behaviours; participants also develop the ability to think logically
  •   Period when participants begin to specialize in particular sports, and develop broader strategic and tactical awareness

Physical

  •   Major physiological systems and functions are established; appropriate time to develop aerobic capacity; significant increase in strength and anaerobic capacity (endurance-speed)
  •   Training of power and speed can be done
  •   Increase in muscle mass in boys, due to the increased production of certain hormones, in particular testosterone
  •   Growth in girls typically ends at 17-18 years, and at 19-20 years in boys

Preferences

  •   Prefers to play the full game or activity, i.e. without modification of the rules or conditions of play
  •   Prefers activities that contribute to improving physical appearance or to creating a particular status in the eyes of

    peers (e.g. sport, art, theatre)

  •   Group activities become important (e.g. movies, dances, parties, travel)

To Avoid

 Development of certain muscle groups while ignoring antagonists (e.g. developing the quadriceps but not the hamstrings)

Suggestions

  •   Delegate certain tasks, provide opportunities for the participant to solve technical-tactical problems and improve decision-making
  •   All athletic abilities can be trained and developed, relative to the degree of physical maturity of the individual
  •   Strength-endurance can be trained with no reservations based on the demands of the sport; if increased muscle

    mass is an important goal to achieve given the sport, this can be accomplished through strength training programs using moderate loads in sets of 8-12 repetitions; all major muscle groups should be developed to avoid muscle imbalances (note: major increases in muscle mass should not be expected in females)

  •   Strength training with very heavy weights (1-5 repetition maximum, or RM) can be done by both sexes, but with caution and under the guidance of experienced coaches
  •   Include sessions dealing with officiating, strategy, and tactics
  •   Creating an assistant coaching role for some appropriately qualified participants may improve self-esteem and

    peer acceptance

  •   Important time to work at developing respect for others, and concepts like fair play and work ethic
  •   Provide opportunities for participants to observe and meet role models

Growth and Development – v.2 – September 28, 2018
© 2018 Softball Canada & Coaching Association of Canada 10

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GROWTH & DEVELOPMENT

18+ YEARS

General Remarks

  •   Major physiological systems and functions are established, which allows for the training of all athletic abilities
  •   Self-assured; chooses own path and goes out on his/her own
  •   Resists involvement in situations which may question self-image as an independent person
  •   The need to achieve may lead the participant to strive for improved performance
  •   General training time may be reduced as the serious participant concentrates on specialization and preparation for competition

Psychosocial

  •   Professional and family obligations lead to much less free time
  •   Intimate relationships are very important
  •   Financial independence provides greater opportunity for choice
  •   May become a member of a group of close friends

Learning

 

Adults over 25 years of age often have experience in a broad range of activities (e.g. sport, work, education) which can greatly improve learning and the transfer of knowledge and experience from one area to another

Activities that help relieve stress

To Avoid

Nothing; all abilities can be trained

Physical

  •   Young men stop growing at around 20 years of age
  •   The individual may expend significant energy and time raising children and working
  •   Strength, speed, and power are at their peak in the early 20s, and may be maintained through to the early 30s
  •   Endurance reaches its peak towards the late 20s; after the age of 30, physical capacities begin to decline

    progressively

Preferences

Suggestions

  •   Interaction with others is important and may take the form of participation in seminars, workshops, or sport training camps
  •   Individuals may seek roles and responsibilities in the management, organization or promotion of activities and events
  •   Becoming a coach, official, or referee is one way of keeping this group engaged and committed, and also offers the opportunity for social interaction
  •   Engage in competitive activities and events in practices

Vulnerable Sector Check – please click on the link for the form.

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